End of Waste (EoW)

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)

European Commission – End of Waste Accreditation

Our recycled plastic product is accredited with the ‘End of Waste’ (EoW) status with the Environment Agency in the UK by virtue of its purity, consistency and the robust application of our quality control procedures. The EA have approved our process as meeting European Commission EoW criteria which specify when certain waste ceases to be waste and obtains a status of a product or a secondary raw material. In our case, BOSS-3D technology recycles waste plastic into a secondary raw material suitable for use in manufacturing.

Without recycling, this material is not sustainable as a packaging solution. Our technology, process and business model fundamentally change the life cycle assessment of plastic as a packaging solution by unlocking the recyclability of hitherto “impossible to recycle” waste streams. The simple, mechanical, water-based BOSS-3D technology provides a significant carbon saving.

As part of the EoW process we are an accredited reprocessor for Packaging Recovery Notes (PRNs). As an accredited PRN reprocessor, by virtue of our adherence to BSEN 15343, we have a duty to follow rigorous sampling procedures to determine the post-consumer plastic packaging content of our feedstock on a load by load basis.

Sustainability - End of Waste
Sustainability - Life Cycle Analysis

BOSS-3D: Life Cycle Analysis

BOSS-3D is the key to unlocking affordable recycling at the local level.  There will be CO2 savings of approximately 22 g. CO2 /kg of material which yields 22kg of CO2 saved per 1000kg of PE/PP that is recycled locally instead of transporting to centralised facilities.  This saving is realised because, at present, plastic waste streams travel an average distance of 380km from waste collection to recycling facility [Eco-Emballages, 2014].  The BOSS process significantly reduces this distance because a far greater range of feedstocks can be accepted, meaning local waste streams are sufficient to sustain the plant capacity.

The target feedstock for BOSS-3D is currently being exported, landfilled or incinerated.  We have successfully shown we can create a market for this material at our Newcastle facility.  In the case of incineration, the CO2 emissions attributable to PE/PP being incinerated are 4516g. CO2 /kg of material.  This yields 4516kg of CO2 saved per 1000kg of PE/PP that is diverted from incineration and reused in manufacturing.  This figure captures direct CO2 emissions from the burning of plastic, that virgin plastic must be produced to replace this burnt plastic and the carbon cost of distributing the plastic to a centralised incinerator.  100% of this figure is attributable to the policy of incinerating waste plastic where the electricity generated displaces zero-carbon energy sources.

The proportion of our target feedstock is currently incinerated vs landfilled vs exported is variable, we know that ca.35% of our feedstock was previously being incinerated and instead is recovered and sent to our facility, 20% was exported and 45% was landfilled.  Using this as a basis for estimating the best fit figure (excluding export, assumed 65% landfilled) for this project, we find:

This yields 2759kg of CO2 saved per 1000kg of PE/PP processed using BOSS technology.

High Purity Flake


Testing Process